血液滴在水中

血液学:它在我们的血液中

它不断通过我们的机构循环,每天七天二十四小时向我们的器官提供营养素。主要由血浆,红细胞,白细胞和血小板组成,我们的血对生命至关重要。

Blood cells originally develop from stem cells, which have the potential to turn into any type of blood cell as they divide and mature. When this process goes wrong it can cause numerous problems – including blood cancer.1

用血癌的生活交响曲

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一个音乐家。一个妈妈。血液癌症患者。

它始于一个柔软的开口,然后是一个渐变的曲折,最后是大爆炸:“你有血癌,可能是不可治量的,这是我们将如何战斗它”。

It was 2012 and Kathleen was balancing a fulfilling job as a musician with a busy family life, as a mother to two young children, when doctors gave her some news that would shape the rest of her life.

Red blood cells

The fascination with blood

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, the German poet and scientist, famously said that "Blood is a very special juice". Indeed, it has intrigued and fascinated scientists for centuries and the medical field of haematology is dedicated to understanding the secrets of how it works.

血液学是一个复杂挑战的地区,覆盖从血液的癌症到出血障碍等一切haemophilia和补充系统疾病,如阵发性夜间血红蛋鱼。

虽然性质本质上,但这些疾病中的许多常见是他们对生存和生活质量的严重影响。仅血液癌症是全世界癌症相关死亡最常见的最常见原因;三种最常见的血液癌是骨髓瘤,白血病和淋巴瘤。2

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

“Blut Ist Ein Ganz Besondrer Saft。”血是一个非常特别的果汁。

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, 1808
德国诗人,剧作家,小说家,科学家和政治家

同一树的分支

Cancers of the blood are categorised into different sub-groups based on the type of cells they affect

This grouping can be imagined almost like a tree with branches – with the three main branches being myeloma, leukaemia and lymphoma. These three main types of blood cancer then split off into further branches and subtypes as well.

  • 骨髓瘤发展的类型的细胞the bone marrow called a plasma cell. It is often referred to as multiple myeloma because it can develop anywhere in the body where there is bone marrow, including the pelvis, spine and ribcage.3
  • 白血病is diagnosed in more than 400,000 people each year.2白血病的亚型取决于受影响的血细胞类型 - 红色或白色 - 癌症生长的速度。
    • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is the most common subtype of leukaemia, which progresses slowly over time, and results from a build-up of abnormal white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the bone marrow.4
  • 了解有关慢性淋巴细胞白血病的更多信息
    • Acute myeloid leukaemia is an aggressive (fast-growing) form of leukaemia that starts in immature forms of blood-forming cells, known as myeloid cells, found in the bone marrow.5它是成人最常见的侵略性白血病类型。6
  • 了解有关急性髓性白血病的更多信息
  • 淋巴瘤is the most common type of blood cancer, with over 580,000 people diagnosed worldwide every year.2它在淋巴结中收集异常淋巴细胞并形成肿瘤时发展。7
tree_branches_1920

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新的有人被诊断出患有全世界的血癌

淋巴瘤:最大的分支机构

"At the time I was quite relieved they had found something. I didn’t quite realise what that would entail…I didn’t really know very much about lymphoma, I knew it was a blood cancer, but that was it."

Kathleen found out that she is one of the 580,000 people worldwide diagnosed annually with lymphoma.2

淋巴瘤可分为两个主要类别 - 霍奇金淋巴瘤和非霍奇金淋巴瘤(NHL) - 两者都以医师命名,首先分类了条件,托马斯霍奇博士。8,9.

这两种类型的淋巴瘤之间的主要区别在于霍奇金淋巴瘤影响了雷德斯得人类细胞的特异性淋巴细胞,并且比非霍奇金淋巴瘤更加罕见。NHL是最常见的淋巴瘤类型,在五名患者中有四种。bob投注平台2

淋巴瘤流程图的分类
淋巴瘤的分类,包括全世界每年诊断的病例数

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: The right subtype means the right treatment

Over 60 different subtypes of NHL have been identified, classified as either aggressive or indolent depending on whether it is fast (aggressive) or slow (indolent) growing.10在诊断时知道亚型至关重要,根据亚型,需要不同的处理方法。

滤泡淋巴瘤

像Kathleen一样,Anne于2012年被诊断出患有淋巴瘤。她的诊断是最常见的惰性(缓慢生长)NHL - 滤泡淋巴瘤 - 这占所有淋巴瘤病例的20%。11这种类型的淋巴瘤生长缓慢,可以在身体中不受注意到。虽然大多数患者对初始治bob投注平台疗造成初始治疗,但卵泡淋巴瘤的主要挑战是它的重复趋势,并且每次癌症都会回来它变得越难以治疗。12

找出患者的旅程在卵泡淋巴瘤中的旅程看起来像什么

卵泡淋巴瘤一般被认为是可衰,治疗的主要目的是在一个人的疾病返回之前延长时间(这被称为复发)。

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“医生帮助我与我的淋巴瘤生存,但护士帮助我生活”


Anne, Lymphoma patient


生活与生活条件的想法是许多患者与重复的恐惧斗争的东西。bob投注平台近75%的患者经历对治疗后复bob投注平台发的恐惧,有些患者继续报告治疗后八年的复发恐惧。13

“当医生谈论我的复发时,我发现它再次震惊。对我来说,我感觉良好,我看起来很好,我正在做所有正确的事情。为什么我不应该像这样继续?“


凯瑟琳,淋巴瘤患者
格雷厄姆博士柯林斯博士

“第一次缓解是一个关键的缓解。特别是因为我们知道,如果患者复发,两年内的早期,他们的预后较bob投注平台差。“

格雷厄姆柯林斯博士,英国

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

30% of newly diagnosed cases of NHL are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), making it the most common type of aggressive lymphoma.14由于其快速增长的性质,DLBCL需要迅速处理,以在它传播之前将其停留在其轨道中。

治疗的最终目标是治愈患者,然而,在患者的患者中可治愈,疾病可以恢复,此时治疗方案有限bob投注平台,存活是短暂的。15提高含有第一线治疗的固化率,并为已复发的人开发有效疗法,是改善长期结果的关键。

Professor Umberto Vitolo

“It’s a really bad disease. Patients who have advanced disease with symptoms, require treatment quickly. Without treatment they might only live for a few more months.”

Professor Umberto Vitolo, Italy

帮助血液学条件的人:它在我们的血液中

超过20年,我们一直在努力对血液癌的人们有所不同,其中当前治疗方案有限,需要进步。今天,我们继续投资于对血液疾病的人们带来创新的治疗方案,旨在满足他们独特的需求和改善生活的目标。

我们的承诺超出发展创新疗法,在提高患者的生活质量方面发挥更广泛的作用。我们正在探索尽可能快速和有效地向患者提供创新的最佳方法,包括不断发展和改进临床试验的设计。bob投注平台

Clinical endpoints are proof points and need to be evolved

临床终点是对患者的益处 - 例如存活,减少疼痛,癌细胞数量的效益,或者在需要下一次治疗的时间内,患者减少。bob投注平台他们在试验中发挥着关键作用,因为他们帮助研究人员了解治疗是否具有所需的效果。bob下载地址

随着我们对疾病的科学了解,有时,理解揭示了改善我们使用的临床终点的机会。

看着新方法来衡量治疗成功

Many of today’s current treatments aim to remove most of the blood cancer from the body, however, residual cancer cells can remain in small numbers after treatment. This is known as minimal residual disease (MRD).16These remaining cells increase the risk of a cancer coming back. Being MRD negative means that none of these cells can be detected. The use of MRD as an endpoint in clinical trials allows clinicians to assess the extent to which a treatment is working much more quickly than other conventional endpoints.

秋叶

Like leaves in a swimming pool: why MRD testing is important

MRD在血癌中的重要性

MRD测试只是我们在我们的审判中采用的一种创新,但它不会是最后一个 - 因为我们的团队努力不断为患有血液病变和对待它们的医生而不断为转型变化提供转型变化。bob投注平台

We are dedicating all our efforts to doing now, what they need next.

参考

  1. 美国血液学会。Blood Cancers. [Internet; cited November 2019]. Available from: https://www.hematology.org/Patients/Cancers/.
  2. 源自2018年的全球数量。[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可从:http://gco.iarc.fr/today/data/factsheets/populations/900-world-fact-sheets.pdf。
  3. 癌症研究英国。bob下载地址关于骨髓瘤。[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可从:https://www.cancerresearchuch.obob下载地址rg/about-cancer/myeloma/about。
  4. Medscape. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). [Internet; cited November 2019]. Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/199313-overview.
  5. 美国癌症协会。什么是急性髓性白血病?[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可从:http://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-acutemyelotiaml/detailedguide/leukemia-acute-myeloid-myelogenous-what-is-aml。
  6. 国家癌症研究所。成人急性骨髓性白血病治疗(PDQ®) - 储存版本。[互联网;引用2019年10月]。可从:https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/adult-aml-treatment-pdq#link/_1。
  7. 美国血液学会。淋巴瘤。[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可从:http://www.hematology.org/patients/cancbob投注平台ers/lymphoma.aspx。
  8. 国家癌症研究所:癌症术语词典。[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可用:https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?cdrid=45368。
  9. Hodgkin T.在吸收腺体和脾脏的一些病态外观上。Med Chir Trans。1832; 17:68-114。
  10. swerdlow sh等人。世卫组织血液和淋巴组织肿瘤的分类。在:世界卫生组织肿瘤分类。里昂,法国:IARC;2017年。
  11. 淋巴瘤研究基础。bob下载地址滤泡淋巴瘤。[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可从:https://www.lymphoma.org/aboutlymphoma/nhl/fl//。
  12. 福勒N.维持维生素(Rituxan)治疗治疗滤泡淋巴瘤的作用。药房和治疗;2011;36:590-598。
  13. 淋巴瘤Coalition. Fear of Cancer Recurrence report. [Internet; cited November 2019]. Available from: https://www.lymphomacoalition.org/images/FCR_Final_Report.pdf.
  14. 非霍奇金淋巴瘤国际淋巴瘤研究组分类的临床评价。非霍奇金淋巴瘤分类项目。献血1997;89:3909-18。
  15. Maurer, MJ et al. Event-free survival at 24 months is a robust end point for disease-related outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32: 1066-73.
  16. 欧洲药品管理局。2014年使用最少残留疾病的指南作为慢性淋巴细胞白血病研究中的终点。[互联网;引用2019年11月]。可从:http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_gb/document_library/scientific_guideline/2014/12/12/3.pdf。